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Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 mandated employers to maintain records that could be used to identify potential discrimination in hiring practices.Following this, in 1966, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) implemented a requirement for certain employers to report employee data categorized by job category, race, ethnicity, and sex. This data collection became known as “EEO-1.”

While EEO-1 data collection has been in place for decades, it wasn’t until 2020 that the current EEO-1 Component 1 report format was finalized. In 2016, the EEOC sought approval to collect this specific data set, which focuses on workforce demographics. After receiving final approval from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in June 2020, the EEO-1 Component 1 report became the official format for this mandatory data collection.

The EEO-1 Component 1 report is a mandatory annual data collection that requires all private sector employers with 100 or more employees, and federal contractors with 50 or more employees meeting certain criteria, to submit demographic workforce data to the EEOC.

The EEOC has the authority to compel employers to file EEO-1 reports through court order pursuant to Section 709(c) of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act.

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) just announced it has filed suit against 15 employers in 10 states this week, alleging the companies failed to comply with mandatory federal reporting requirements. The list of employer includes companies from the retail, construction, restaurant, manufacturing, logistics, and service industries.

Federal law requires employers with 100 or more employees to submit workforce data to the EEOC. The data collected includes workforce information by job category and sex, race, or ethnicity. This workforce demographic data is used for a variety of purposes including enforcement, analytics and research, and employer self-assessment.

“This data collection is an important tool for ensuring compliance with Title VII’s prohibition on workplace discrimination,” said EEOC General Counsel Karla Gilbride. “Not only did Congress authorize the EEOC to collect this data, Congress also authorized the agency to go to court to obtain compliance when employers ignore their obligation to provide the required information.”

The 2023 EEO-1 Component 1 data collection is currently underway. The EEOC began collecting EEO-1 Component 1 data from employers for the 2023 reporting cycle on April 30, 2024. The published deadline to file the 2023 EEO-1 Component 1 report was June 4, 2024.

The EEOC publishes an Instruction Booklet for employers to assist them in complying with this mandatory reporting requirement, which is available at

For more information on EEO data collection, please visit