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Now that the dust has settled on AB-5, the new law that classifies more independent contractors as employees, industries that are expected to be affected include: golf caddies, exotic dancers, some freelance journalists, cable installers, bartenders, and most delivery drivers. The Recording Industry Association of America, and the American Association of Independent Music. AB5 could make workers, including producers, engineers, musicians, publicists and background vocalists, full-time employees.

According to the Freelancing in America survey, there is a reported 57 million American freelancers contributing an excess of $1 trillion dollars to the economy each year. And California based freelance writers are now cast as industry pariah by some employers.

The Hollywood Reporter stated many publications are going to avoid working with California freelancers to avoid potential lawsuits. They’ve admitted to already seeing SEO, transcription and writing job notices explicitly state California freelancers won’t be considered.

The exemption for freelance journalists contains what some say is a potentially career-ending requirement for a writer to remain a freelancer: If a freelance journalist writes for a magazine, newspaper or other entity whose central mission is to disseminate the news, the law says, that journalist is capped at writing 35 “submissions” per year per “putative employer.” At a time when paid freelance stories can be written for a low end of $25 and high end of $1 per word, some meet that cap in a month just to make end’s meet.

Amy Lamare, who writes for money site and, adds, “Everyone’s freaking out, like my anxiety is going through the damn roof.”

Many publications that employ California freelancers aren’t based in the state and it’s not clear how AB 5 will affect them. Still, some are choosing to opt out entirely. Indeed, several freelance writers who spoke to THR say that various out-of-state employers – some with offices in California – have already told them they’re cutting ties with California freelancers.

I have heard from clients that they’re just going to avoid working with California freelancers,” freelance entertainment writer Fred Topel says (Topel chose not to name those clients in case they change their minds). THR has additionally reviewed several job notices in transcription, blogging and SEO writing that have explicitly stated that California freelancers will not be considered.

Large California-based news media brands are still figuring out the logistics of how to comply with the law. Asked how he plans to handle the implementation of AB 5 next year, San Diego Union-Tribune publisher and editor-in-chief Jeff Light says, “We’re in the process of sorting through the implications right now. Unfortunately, I suspect a number of freelancers will end up with less work from us as a result of the 35-piece limit. I don’t have anything more detailed than that at this point.”

Of the freelancer exemption, San Francisco Chronicle publisher Bill Nagel says, “This was a poorly considered part of the law, likely based on a fundamental misunderstanding of why companies use freelancers. There are situations in which we cannot make a freelancer an employee, which inhibits our First Amendment rights as a publication. It also seems odd and problematic that broadcast freelancers are treated differently than their colleagues in print media. Unfortunately, AB 5 will limit opportunities for some freelancers and silence a number of voices in the market. We will, of course, comply with the law.”

Meanwhile, national outlets are remaining mostly silent publicly. The Los Angeles Times – which just negotiated its first newsroom union contract – The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal and Southern California News Group (which owns the O.C. Register and Los Angeles Daily News) declined to comment. USA Today owner Gannett, which has freelancers at papers in California, and movie website Rotten Tomatoes, which is based in Los Angeles, did not respond to requests for comment.